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Melasma is the medical term for brown patches or tan spots common among women. These patches or spots appear symmetrically on the forehead, temples, and cheeks or above the upper lip. These are generally a result of hormonal changes during the aging process or sun exposure. This can also occur during pregnancy or in women taking birth control pills.

Freckles are flat, circular spots that typically range in the size of the head of a nail. The spots develop randomly on the skin, especially after repeated exposure to sunlight and particularly in persons of fair complexion. Freckles vary in color — they may be red, yellow, tan, light-brown, brown, or black — but they are always darker than the skin around them since they are due to deposits of the dark pigment called melanin.

Nevus of Hori and Ota are colored skin markings of slate-brown or blue/grey coloring. They are unusual birthmark in which the melanocytes (pigment cells) are found deeper than normal (in the dermis instead of the epidermis). The difference between a nevus of Ota and a nevus of Hori is its location. Nevus of Ota is on the forehead and face around the eye area, while Nevus of Hori is not present at birth, and it often affects both sides of the face.

*** How are they caused?

– Sun exposure
– Hormonal changes
– Heredity
– Oral contraceptives

*** What are the treatments?

       1. Sunscreen: Use sunscreen that protects against both ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, the sunscreen should have a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30.

      2. Topical cream (Hydroquinone, Tretinoin)

          – Hydroquinone is a cream that takes pigment out of the skin. It blocks the natural chemical process that leads to the creation of melanin, the substance that makes skin dark.
          – Tretinoin is a type of vitamin A that helps to increase the rate at which dead skin cells fall off and new ones appear.

      3. Laser treatment: New laser generations have proven to be the most effective in treating these benign pigmentations. This is a simple and safe procedure with a high success rate and a low risk of scarring or skin discoloration

          – Q-Switch Nd:yag
          – Ultra-Micro Fractional CO2

*** Benefits of these laser treatment are:

– Reduce pigmentation
– No downtime or side effects
– Safe for all skin types
– Smooth out uneven skin tones
– Improve fine wrinkles
– Shorten procedure time
– Long-term lasting results

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